The Gastroenterology is a branch of internal medicine. It deals with the human gastrointestinal tract and all the connected organs:

  • oesophagus
  • stomach
  • duodenum
  • small intestine and colon
  • liver and gallbladder
  • pancreas
  • anus

All these organs can be affected by ulcers and tumours. Important to mention are inflammations such as gastritis, hepatitis or diseases such as coeliac condition, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Functional disturbances cause diseases like dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Hemorrhoids are also a frequent problem.

The endoscope is often used for diagnostic and therapeutic measures. For this a tiny, moveable instrument is inserted into the mouth or the anus ending at the gastrointestinal tract. A video chip is fixed at the head of the instrument. A processor broadcast a clear, enlarged image to a monitor. The instrument's got a working channel which allows to insert biopsy-instruments, hemostatis, tumour ablation, etc.

The camera capsule endoscopy is a new examination method, especially for small bowel diseases. For this method a mini camera is used, which looks like a drug capsule. It contains a mini camera, a flash, a transmitter and a battery. The camera capsule has to be swallowed with a sip of water. It will flush down through the oesophagus, the stomach, the small intestine and the colon by natural organic motion. After 1-3 days it will excrete with defecation, often without being noticed.

Ultrasound investigations contain little invasive examinations; therefore it's often used to get an initial picture. Abdominal organs are investigated by using sound waves. For this a so-called ultrasound head scans the abdomen. Thereby sectional images of several organs can be gained. Organs, which contain little air, such as the liver, the gallbladder or the pancreas are the most suitable.

Some diseases, for example carcinomas, require surgical measures. These are executed as carefully as possible. Chemo- and radiotherapy are often necessary then.